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The problem with fixed routes is that a circuit failure or node failure disrupts the session and congestion slows the session down. More effective is the ability to reconfigure the session within the core network. The service provider can use a routing protocol to enable nodes to exchange information about their loads and circuit status. Circuit failures and congestion can be made almost transparent to the user application. 25 checks for errors at every node. A packet is not transferred to the next node until it has been received error-free.

When competing carriers first began to emerge, the ILECs refused to permit them to provide DSL over existing telephone lines. That meant that either competitors leased a single-purpose cable pair or the customer purchased an additional telephone line. The DSL carriers appealed to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), and in its 1999 line sharing order, the FCC required the ILECs to permit competitive DSL carriers to provide service over existing telephone lines. DSL Standards One problem with DSL has been a glut of standards.

Several factors instigated this. One was the development of digital loop carrier (DLC), which allows the ILECs to extend subscriber lines to the outer reaches of the wire center using a system similar to T1/E1. The DLC is housed in an environmentally controlled enclosure and fed from the CO with fiber optics. This is a cost-effective alternative to using coarser cable gauges 44 Access Technologies: DSL and Cable and range extension. The latter amounts to electronic amplification of the voice signal and boosting the DC signaling range of the switch.

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