Download After the First Three Minutes: The Story of Our Universe by T. Padmanabhan PDF

By T. Padmanabhan

The evolution of our Universe and the formation of stars and galaxies are mysteries that experience lengthy wondered scientists. fresh years have introduced new medical realizing of those profound and primary concerns. In full of life prose, Professor Padmanabhan paints an image of up to date cosmology for the overall reader. in contrast to different renowned books on cosmology, After the 1st 3 mins doesn't gloss over information, or shrink back from explaining the underlying techniques. as an alternative, with a lucid and casual sort, the writer introduces the entire correct history after which rigorously items jointly an enticing tale of the evolution of our Universe. Padmanabhan leaves the reader with a state of the art photograph of scientists' present realizing in cosmology and a willing flavor of the buzz of this fast-moving technology. all through, no arithmetic is used and all technical jargon is obviously brought and strengthened in a convenient thesaurus on the finish of the ebook. For common readers who are looking to come to grips with what we actually do and do not learn about our Universe, this publication offers a thrilling and uncompromising learn. Thanu Padmanabhan is a Professor at Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics in Pune, India. he's the recipient of various awards and writer of 3 books, constitution Formation within the Universe (Cambridge, 1994), Cosmology and Astrophysics via difficulties (Cambridge, 1996), and, including J.V. Narlikar, Gravity, Gauge Theories and Quantum Cosmology. he's additionally the writer of a couple of hundred renowned technology articles, a comic book strip serial and a number of other common columns on astronomy, leisure arithmetic, and the background of technological know-how.

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Sample text

Just as a particle and antiparticle can annihilate each other and produce photons, we can also produce particle-antiparticle pairs out of sufficiently energetic photons. 5 MeV, every once in a while a pair of photons will convert themselves into electron-positron pairs. Of course, electron- positron pairs will also - in turn - annihilate and reproduce the photons. These two processes are governed by different factors and wiU proceed at different rates. A steady state will be reached when the rate of annihilation of electron- positron pairs is balanced by the rate of production of electron- positron pairs from high energy photons.

For example, are radio waves made of photons? At a basic level the answer is, of course, 'yes'. But as we said before, if the wavelength of radiation is comparable to other length scales involved in the problem, then it is better to think of electromagnetic radiation as a wave. For visible light, the wavelength is like a 50 millionth part of a centimeter; clearly this is tiny compared to everyday scales. Radio waves, in contrast, could be tens or hundreds of meters in wavelength, which could be comparable to or bigger than other length scales in the system.

But, unlike the strong force, both leptons and hadrons are affected by the weak force. 5 This schematic diagram shows the variation with distance of the strength of the electromagnetic and strong force between two protons. The strong force is attractive while the electromagnetic force is repulsive. At very short distances the strong force dominates over the electromagnetic force and the protons can be bound to each other. The strong force, however, decreases rapidly with distance while the electromagnetic force falls only slowly with distance.

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