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E) Relatively long hold-over time. These fluids contain at least 50 percent per volume monoethylene, diethylene, or propyleneglycoi, different inhibitors, wetting agents and a thickener system giving the fluid a high viscosity. The rest is water. Although the thickener content is less than one percent, it gives the fluid particular properties. The viscosity of the fluid and the wetting agents causes the fluid to disperse onto the sprayed aircraft surface, and acts like a protective cover. The fundamental idea is a lowering of the freezing point.

1 Icing Effects on Main Rotor System The primary effect of ice on the rotor system is drag; the secondary effect is loss of lift due to the change in aerodynamic efficiency of the blade. The way in which ice forms on the blade is affected by five main factors: (a) Temperature. (b) Liquid content and droplet size. (c) Kinetic energy. (d) Blade section. (e) Mechanical flexion and vibration. Some blade forms produce more kinetic heating than others and this can be related to the design of the blade and its speed of rotation.

General precautions and minimum requirements have been presented here: these considerations must be observed. If there is any doubt as to whether the wing is contaminated – DO NOT PROCEED. As in any other business, the key factors to keep procedures efficient and safe are awareness, understanding and communication. 1 De-icing/Anti-icing Fluids – Characteristics Although numerous fluids are offered by several manufacturers world-wide, fluids can be principally divided into, Type I, Type II and Type IV fluids.

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