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By Karen A. Feste (auth.)

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Extra resources for America Responds to Terrorism: Conflict Resolution Strategies of Clinton, Bush, and Obama

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One type of terrorism features core actors against core governments; a second type involves periphery or semiperiphery Presidential Frames of Terrorism 43 states; in type three, terrorist activities originating in periphery or semiperiphery areas are turned against core states. No longer content with limited goal of trying to gain political power in the oppressive local state from which they appeared, anarchist terrorists shift their attention toward more general and diffuse targets, including state structures in the core, which are deemed to be corrupt because of their larger cultural, political, and military influence and reach.

The full role Osama bin Laden had in this large picture is not known precisely, but as Wright (2006) speculates, he must have played some role since he was forced into exile in the autumn of 1991, fleeing first to Sudan and later to Afghanistan. He drifted from mainstream Saudi opposition, but his emphasis on the withdrawal of American troops from Saudi Arabia and his consistent criticism of the House of Saud reflected the concerns of Saudi opposition. His ideology and modes of operation remain rooted in the legacies of the Saudi opposition although he transformed his movement into a global organization in the late 1990s.

A frame or “frame of reference” is a complex schema of unquestioned beliefs, values, and worldviews used to infer meaning from observed events. If any part of that frame is changed (hence reframed), then the meaning that is inferred may change. To reframe requires parties to step back from what is being said and done and consider the frame, or lens through which this reality is being created to understand the unspoken assumptions, including beliefs and schema that are being used. Then reflectively examine whether it is possible to look at the situation in another way.

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